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An authoritative and thorough grounding in psychology, an important knowledge base for social work. Makes clear - at every level, from chapter headings through to pedagogy - how psychological theory and evidence connects with social work practice. Provides a one-stop-shop combination of clarity and depth to suit a range of students' study needs? Ebook - Show More. Show Less. Makes clear - at every level, from chapter headings through to pedagogy - how psychological theory and evidence connects with social work practice Provides a one-stop-shop combination of clarity and depth to suit a range of students' study needs?

Email Address. Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both sexes 2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role 3. Accepting one's physique and using the body effectively 4. Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults 5. Preparing for marriage and family life Preparing for an economic career 6. Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior, developing an ideology 7.

Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior S. Early Adulthood yrs 1. Selecting a mate 2. Learning to live with a marriage partner 4. Starting a family 5. Rearing children 6. Managing a home 7. Getting started in an occupation 8. Taking on civic responsibility 9. Finding a congenial social group Developmental Tasks — Havighurst S. Middle Age yrs 1. Achieving adult civic and social responsibility 2.

Establishing and maintaining an economic standard of living 3. Assisting teenage children to become responsible and happy adults 4. Developing adult leisure-time activities 5. Accepting and adjusting to the physiologic changes or middle age 7. Adjusting to aging parents. Developmental Tasks — Havighurst S. Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health 2. Adjusting to retirement and reduced income 3.

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Adjusting to death of a spouse 4. Meeting social and civil obligations 6. Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangement Developmental Tasks — Havighurst S. Mental refers to development of the mind; includes learning how to solve problems, make judgments and deal with situations.

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Emotional refers to feelings; includes dealing with love, hate, joy, fear, excitement, and other similar feelings. Social refers to interactions and relationship with others. Some developmental theories focus on the formation of a specific quality, such as Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Other developmental theories focus on growth that happens throughout the lifespan, such as Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Mini theories Mini theories describe a small, very specific aspect of development.

A mini theory might explain fairly narrow behaviors, such as how self-esteem is formed or early childhood socialization. These theories are often rooted in the ideas established by grand theories, but they do not seek to describe and explain the whole of human behavior and growth. Freud believed that humans go through five stages of psychosexual development and that at each stage of development humans experience pleasure in one part of the body than in others. Psychosexual Development Theory What is psychosexual development?

Freud thought that our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between these early sources of pleasure—the mouth, the anus and the genitals—and the demands of reality. What are erogenous zones? Erogenous zones are parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages of development. What is fixation? Fixation is the psychoanalytic defense mechanism that occurs when the individual remains locked in an earlier developmental stage because needs are under- or over- gratified Sigmund Freud S.

If these habits don't develop it is said that an adult will bite their nails or over eat or smoke later in life, etc S. Anal Stage yrs Toddlers learn how to hold and release their urine and feces. They learn to move away from diapers by using the toilet. This causes the child to take on characteristics of the same-sex parent.

The children will suppress this desire to not scare away the opposite sex parent and thus the superego is formed S. Mistrust Infancy 0- 8 mns Feeding. Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt yrs Early Childhood Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failur results in feelings of shame and doubt.

Initiative vs. Guilt yrs Preschool Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Inferiority yrs School Age School Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Identity vs. Role Confusion 12 yrs Adolescence Social Relationships Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity.

Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. Intimacy vs. Isolation ys Young Adulthood Relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Stagnation ys Middle Adulthood Work and Parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.

Ego Integrity vs. Despair death Maturity Reflection on Life Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair. Cognitive Theories Cognitive theories are concerned with the development of a person's thought processes.

Schemas-A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. Assimilation-The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schemas is known as assimilation. Accommodation- Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information, a process known as accommodation.

This theory provides a framework for understanding, predicting and changing human behaviour. Social Cognitive Theory revolves around the notion that learning correlates to the observation of role models. In order to learn, one need to be pay attention. The more striking or different something is due to colour or drama, for example the more likely it is to gain ones attention. Likewise, if one regard something as prestigious, attractive or like ourselves, one will take more notice.

Distraction will have a negative effect on observational learning. The ability to store information.

the truth about social work and social workers - salary, reputation, turnover rate, etc.

Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning Reproduction. In order for observational learning to be successful, one has to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement past reinforcement. Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its previous stage.

Kohlberg observed that growing children advance through definite stages of moral development in a manner similar to their progression through Piaget's well-known stages of cognitive development. Kohlberg determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice, and that it continued throughout the individual's life time.

The se are stages of thought processing, implying qualitatively different modes of thinking and of problem solving at each stage. Stages of Faith James W. Fowler Faith is defined as confidence or trust in a being, object, living organism, deity, view, or in the doctrines or teachings of a religion, as well as confidence based on no scientific, plausible, testable, demonstrable evidence whatsoever. The word faith is often used as a synonym for hope, for trust, or for belief. Professor James W. Fowler proposes series of stages of faith development or spiritual development across the life span.

It is closely related to the work of Piaget, Erikson, and Kohlberg regarding aspects of psychological development in children and adults. Fowler defines faith as an activity of trusting, committing, and relating to the world based on a set of assumptions of how one is related to others and the world. Stages of Faith Development — James W. Fowler S. FowlerStage 1 Intuitive-Projective This is the stage of preschool children in which fantasy and reality often get mixed together.

Stage 2 Mythic-Literal When children become school-age, they start understanding the world in more logical ways. They generally accept the stories told to them by their faith community but tend to understand them in very literal ways. At this point, their life has grown to include several different social circles and there is a need to pull it all together. When this happens, a person usually adopts some sort of all-encompassing belief system.

However, at this stage, people tend to have a hard time seeing outside their box and don't recognize that they are "inside" a belief system. At this stage, authority is usually placed in individuals or groups that represent one's beliefs. Fowler Stage 4 Individuative-Reflective This is the tough stage, often begun in young adulthood, when people start seeing outside the box and realizing that there are other "boxes". They begin to critically examine their beliefs on their own and often become disillusioned with their former faith. Ironically, the Stage 3 people usually think that Stage 4 people have become "backsliders" when in reality they have actually moved forward.

Stage 5 Conjunctive Faith It is rare for people to reach this stage before mid-life. This is the point when people begin to realize the limits of logic and start to accept the paradoxes in life. They begin to see life as a mystery and often return to sacred stories and symbols but this time without being stuck in a theological box. Stage 6 Universalizing Faith Few people reach this stage.

Those who do live their lives to the full in service of others without any real worries or doubts.


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Sullivan found out that childhood experiences with other people are a large contributor to the adult personality. He differed from Freud in his belief that the primary significance of the parent-child relationship was not predominantly sexual, but rather an early quest for security by the child.

He also believed that the personality can continue to develop past adolescence and even well into adulthood. Sullivan called these stages "developmental epochs," occurring in a particular order but with their timing determined by our social environment. The majority of Sullivan's focus revolved around the periods of adolescence, and he suggested that many adulthood problems arise from the turmoils of adolescence. Wewrite each chapter aswe go along SullivanS. Psychology for Social Workers 3. Definition Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.

Learning theories Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed, and knowledge and skills retained. Behaviorism is focused on observable behavior. Social Learning Social learning theory explains how people learn new behaviors, values, and attitudes by observing the behavior of others and its consequences, and modify their own behavior accordingly.

Social learning requires observing a behaviour, remembering the observed behavior, the ability to replicate the behavior, and a motivation to act the same way. The two major types of conditioning, respondent conditioning classical conditioning and operant conditioning Classical conditioning involves learning a new behavior via the process of association. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. Operant conditioning instrumental conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.

Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Human beings learn behaviour through conditioning and interacting with the environment S. Cognitive psychologists study internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking.

A learner is viewed as an information processor Psychology for Social Workers 3. The Formal Operational Stage: The final stage of Piaget's theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas. The Sensorimotor Stage: During this stage, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects.

The Preoperational Stage: At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people. The Concrete Operational Stage: Kids at this point of development begin to think more logically, but their thinking can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts.

Social Cognitive Theory Social cognitive theory explains psychosocial functioning in terms of triadic 1. By observing others models , people acquire knowledge of rules, skills, strategies, beliefs, and attitudes. Individuals also learn about the usefulness and appropriateness of behaviors 2. It is a learning theory views learning as the product of experience building new knowledge by accessing past experiences - Cognitive constructivism and social discourse expanding understanding through social interactions - social constructivism Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator Psychology for Social Workers 3.

Discovery Learning Discovery learning is an inquiry based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned e.

Communities of Practice Community of Practice is a social learning process that occurs when people who have a common interest in a subject or area collaborate over an extended period of time, sharing ideas and strategies, determine solutions, and build innovations Jean Lave Psychology for Social Workers 3. Since the "content" related to the problem is not handed out, learning becomes active in the sense that one is motivated to discover the relevant content necessary to solve the problem.

In PBL, a teacher acts as facilitator and mentor, rather than a source of "solutions. Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning Some of the major ideas and concepts that emerged as a result of the humanist movement include an emphasis on things such as: Hierarchy of needs Self determination Self-actualization Emotional intelligence Psychology for Social Workers 3. Emotional Intelligence Learning is to prepare children's and adults to develop competencies to meet the demands life.

Learning includes not only the subjects but also to learn to identify, assess, and control one's own emotions, the emotions of others and that of groups. Learning to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Hierarchy of Needs Humanistic learning theory emphasizes on the individual needs in learning.

When all levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs are met, students are at their full potential for learning. Experiential Learning Experiential learning is the process of making meaning from direct experience, i. Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Learning takes place in four stages 1. Self Determination Humans are often motivated to act by external rewards such as money, prizes, and acclaim known as extrinsic motivation , Self- Determination Theory SDT focuses primarily on internal sources of motivation such as a need to gain knowledge competence or independence autonomy or to relate known as intrinsic motivation.

If the learner experience competence when challenged and given prompt feedback, experience autonomy and support to explore, to take initiative and develop solutions for the problems and experience relatedness when listened and responded by others, the learner feels salification of intrinsic needs and motivated and engage in learning actively.

Definition Learning Disabilities refer to a number of disorders which may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, understanding or use of verbal or nonverbal information. Dyslexia reading-based or print-based A condition in the brain that makes it hard for a person to read, write, and spell Psychology for Social Workers 3. Dysgraphia is a writing disability, which means a child may not have the complex set of motor and information processing skills to be able to write his or her own thoughts down on a piece of paper.

They struggle with writing complete and grammatically correct sentences, and often have poor handwriting. Dysgraphia writing-based Impairment of the ability to write, usually caused by brain dysfunction or disease. Dyscalculia Arithmetic math -based Dyscalculia is a math-based learning disability, which results in a child having trouble recognizing numbers and symbols and understanding basic math concepts. For adults, they often have problems related to reasoning. Dyspraxia Motor based Dyspraxia is a disorder that affects motor skill development.

People with dyspraxia have trouble planning and completing fine motor tasks. This can vary from simple motor tasks such as waving goodbye to more complex tasks like brushing teeth. Central Auditory Process Disorder auditory-based Central Auditory Process Disorder CAPD is an auditory disability, which means a child has difficulty processing information he or she hears and interpreting speech. A child with CAPD does not necessarily suffer from hearing loss, instead he or she has a hearing problem where the brain does not interpret information heard. Aphasia, Dysphasia or Global Aphasia language-based People who suffer from language-based disorders such as aphasia, dysphasia or global aphasia have a hard time expressing themselves using words as well as understanding spoken or written language.

Meaning Memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information from the outside world to reach the five senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli and changed into a usable form. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that information is maintained over periods of time.

Finally the third process is the retrieval of information that has been stored. The retrieval process allows us to bring stored memories which lies outside of our awareness most of the time into conscious awareness. Sensory Memory Sensory memory is the shortest-term element of memory. It is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended.

In Freudian psychology, this memory would be referred to as the conscious mind. The information found in short term memory comes from paying attention to sensory memories Psychology for Social Workers 3. Long Term Information stored in the brain and retrievable over a long period of time, often over the entire life span of the individual Psychology for Social Workers 3. Rote Memory Rote memory is verbal repetition of a learnt material mechanically; it is somewhat similar to habit memory and it is possible without understanding the learnt material.

For example, learning the addition or multiplication tables. Habit Memory Habit memory means memory of an object or idea resulting in a mechanical repetition of the activity. A habit is formed by doing a particular activity repeatedly over a period of time; for example, playing a musical instrument. Habit memory becomes more a physical activity. Logical memory involves proper understanding of the material learnt. When the content of a lesson is understood, then one can retain it in mind for a longer period and can reproduce it, whenever required, in future.

It does not depend on the mechanical verbal repetition. PsychologyforSocialWorkers 3.


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  6. These two answers summaries the main theories of forgetting developed by psychologists. The first answer is more likely to be applied to forgetting in short term memory Trace Decay Theory of Forgetting , the second interference and lack of consolidation to forgetting in long term memory. Retention Loss Memory Loss S. Proactive interference, Proactive interference forward-acting disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information and 2.

    Retroactive interference backward-acting New learning disrupts the recall of old Transience: storage decay over time after we part ways with former classmates, unused information fades 1 Blocking inaccessibility of stored information seeing an old classmate, we may feel the name on the tip of our tongue, but we experience retrieval failure- we can't get it out 2 Misattribution confusing the source of information putting words in someone else's mouth or remembering a movie scene as an actual happening 3 Suggestibility Suggestibility is the vulnerability of your memory to the power of suggestion , the lingering effects of misinformation 4 Bias When retrieving a memory, one's mood and other biases at that moment can influence what information one actually recall.

    Decay Theory The decay theory suggest, simply, that our memories may biologically degenerate over time. Forgetting occurs because as time passes, the memory trace gradually fades away. Retroactive interference refers to newly-encoded memory interfering with the retrieval of a less recently encoded memory.

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    Interference theory Proactive interference refers to a previously-encoded memory interfering with the retrieval of a more recently encoded memory. That is, whilst the information is stored in memory and is, theoretically, available, the necessary prompts are not present. Psychology for Social Workers Intelligence S. Meaning Capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc.

    Verbal - Finding the right words to express what one's feel Musical - Discerning sounds, their pitch, tone, rhythm and timbre Mathematical - Quantifying things, making hypotheses, and proving them Naturalistic - Understanding living things and reading nature Interpersonal - Sensing people's feelings and motives Physical - Coordinating one's mind with one's body Visual - Visualizing the world in 3D Existential - Tackling the questions of why we live and why we die Psychology for Social Workers Types of Intelligence S. Q between 90 and is considered average; over , superior.

    Psychology for Social Workers Personality S. Definition Personality is the sum total of the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual. People possess characteristic traits that are relatively stable, across both time and situations, thus accounting for the consistency element of personality.

    It is intrapersonal in the sense that it influences, how people think, feel, and behave in a unique way hence relating to the individuality of the personality. Personality is the set of emotional qualities, ways of behaving, etc. Personality Theories of Personality S. Hippocrates identified four types of Personalities or temperaments, each associated with a different bodily fluid, or "humor.

    Individual personality was determined by the amount of each of the four humors. Type A and Type B personality theory. According to this theory, impatient, achievement-oriented people are classified as Type A, whereas easy- going, relaxed individuals are designated as Type B Psychology for Social Workers Theories of Personality Type Theories S. Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalytic theory placed great importance on the role of unconscious psychological conflicts in shaping behavior and personality.

    Psychoanalytic theory of personality argued that human behavior was the result of the interaction of three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego. Dynamic interactions among these basic parts of the mind were thought to carry human beings through five psychosexual stages of development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Each stage required mastery for a human to develop properly and move on to the next stage successfully. Behavioural Theories Behavioural theory postulates that personality is acquired through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that human responses to environmental stimuli condition human learning which in turn shape behavior and personality.

    Thus personality is neither an inborn character nor unconscious response but a learned one Psychology for Social Workers Theories of Personality S. Social Cognitive Theories Social-Cognitive Theory emphasizes cognitive processes, such as thinking and judging in the development of personality. These cognitive processes contribute to learned behavior that are central to one's personality, not just the environmental influences such as rewards and punishments.

    By observing an admired role model, an individual may choose to adopt and emphasize particular traits and behaviors. Humanistic Theories Humanistic theory postulates that personality is shaped by hierarchy of needs and striving of self actualization. For a person to "grow", they need an environment that provides them with genuineness openness and self -disclosure , acceptance being seen with unconditional positive regard , and empathy being listened to and understood.

    Bio-psychological Theories Bio-psychological theory of personality explains that personality is influenced by the biology of the brain. This theory emphasis on the biochemistry of the behavioral systems of reward, motivation, and punishment.